blood cancer

A large percentage of blood cancers, also known as hematologic tumors, start in the bone marrow, which is responsible for the production of blood. When abnormal blood cells start to grow out of control, they interfere with the normal function of blood cells, which fight infection and produce new blood cells. Stay tuned with HealthoWealth to obtain more info on blood cancer.

Types of blood cancer

The three most prevalent types of blood and bone marrow cancer are leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.


Leukemia is a cancer of the blood that begins in the bone marrow and spreads to other parts. It occurs when the body produces an excessive number of aberrant white blood cells, interfering with the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells and platelets.

Types of blood cancer: Leukemia

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that originates in the lymphatic system from lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that aids in the body’s immune system. Hodgkin lymphoma is a blood cancer that starts in the lymphatic system’s lymphocytes. The Reed-Sternberg cell is a type of abnormal lymphocyte found in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells of the blood, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. Learn about the different stages of multiple myeloma. Less frequent types of blood and bone marrow malignancies, as well as related diseases, include:

  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are rare diseases that develop when blood-forming cells in the bone marrow are damaged.
  • MPNs are rare blood malignancies that develop when the body generates too many white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Essential thrombocythemia (ET), myelofibrosis (MF), and polycythemia vera are the three primary subtypes (PV).
  • Amyloidosis is a rare disorder marked by the accumulation of an aberrant protein known as amyloid. It is not a malignancy. It is, nevertheless, closely linked to multiple myeloma.
  • Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma that begins in the B cells.
  • Aplastic anemia is a rare disorder that happens when critical stem cells are destroyed and require a bone marrow transplant to be treated.
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Blood cancer symptoms

The following are some frequent bone marrow and blood cancer symptoms:

  • Fever, chills
  • Persistent fatigue, weakness
  • Loss of appetite, nausea
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Bone/joint pain
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Headaches
  • Shortness of breath
  • Frequent infections
  • Itchy skin or skin rash
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarms, or groin

Causes of blood cancer

Mutations in the genetic makeup of blood cells—the DNA—cause all blood cancers. Other risk factors differ depending on the type of blood cancer.

The following are risk factors for developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most frequent form of adult leukemia:

  • Advancing age
  • Being male
  • Exposure to industrial chemicals such as benzene
  • Smoking
  • History of cancer treatment
  • Exposure to high doses of radiation
  • History of other blood cancers

The following are risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma:

  • History of infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which causes infectious mononucleosis (mono)
  • Advancing age
  • Being male
  • Family history of Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Compromised immune system

The following are risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma:

  • Exposure to certain industrial chemicals, herbicides, and insecticides
  • History of chemotherapy
  • Radiation exposure
  • Compromised immune system
  • History of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus

Risk factors for developing multiple myeloma:

  • Advancing age
  • Being male
  • Higher risk among African-Americans
  • Obesity or extra body weight

How is blood cancer detected and diagnosed?

Blood cancer can be diagnosed using a variety of tests and methods.
Blood cancer can be diagnosed using a variety of tests and methods.

The initial step in obtaining a diagnosis is usually a physical examination to confirm your general health. Your doctor will examine your body and lymph nodes for symptoms of infection or bruises, as well as evaluate your medical history.

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Blood cancer can be diagnosed using a variety of tests and methods. What you’ll need depends on the type of blood cancer you’re worried about. Your healthcare team may suggest testing and work with you to assess the data and determine a diagnosis.


A biopsy is a technique that collects cell samples for pathologist analysis in the lab. For certain types of blood malignancies, such as lymphoma, a lymph node biopsy, which extracts a sample of lymph tissue or an entire lymph node, may be required.

The bone marrow, which is where blood cells are made, can be tested to determine some types of blood cancer. A bone marrow aspiration is a procedure that removes a tiny sample of bone marrow, blood, and bone from either the hip bone or the breastbone. A laboratory looks for abnormal cells or changes in the genetic material in the sample.

Imaging scans

Imaging scans help some types of blood cancer better than others. Although a scan can detect an enlarged lymph node, which is a frequent indication of lymphoma, it is rarely used to diagnose leukemia, a blood malignancy that causes no visible lesions. Scan results can still show if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Scans include:

  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound

Some types of scans are used during biopsies to help determine the area to be sampled.

Blood tests

The cell count of different components of blood, such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, is seen in a complete blood count (CBC).

Blood chemistry tests determine the concentrations of various compounds in your blood. For example, abnormal protein levels may reveal information about your illness. Doctors may want to evaluate your blood calcium level if multiple myeloma is suspected. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that can be tested to check for lymphoma.

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Blood cancer treatment and therapy options

Blood cancer treatment and therapy options
Blood cancer treatment and therapy options

The type of cancer, your age, how quickly the cancer is spreading, where cancer has spread, and other factors all influence treatment for blood and bone marrow cancers. Some of the most common blood cancer treatments for leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma are as follows:

Stem cell transplantation

A stem cell transplant injects the body with healthy blood-forming stem cells.


Anticancer medicines are used in chemotherapy to stop cancer cells from growing in the body. Chemotherapy for blood cancer may include the administration of numerous medications in a specific order. This treatment can also be used in conjunction with a stem cell transplant.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy can be used to kill cancer cells as well as relieve pain and discomfort. It’s also possible to take it before a stem cell transplant.

Blood cancer survival rates

The prognosis for blood cancer varies depending on the type and other factors such as your overall health, age, and treatment response.

The five-year relative survival rate (the percentage of persons still alive five years after diagnosis) for leukemia is 65 percent, according to the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program—a figure that has improved considerably in the last 50 years. Additional rates include:

  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: 73.2 percent
  • Hodgkin lymphoma: 88.3 percent
  • Myeloma: 55.6 percent

Remember that these survival rates are approximations based on previous therapies and historical data. Medical progress may make your situation even more positive.

If, after reading the article “What is bone marrow and blood cancers? “, you liked it and became interested in studying in other fields of health and medicine, we suggest you read the following articles from the category cancer on our website.

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HealthoWealth Team

A group of students from prestigious universities are present in Healthowealth team. This group use reliable scientific sources and work under the supervision of experts and specialists to gather beneficial info in a simple way for public usage. This info is collected from authentic sources and with great precision, but keep in mind that if you have a serious illness, at first visit a specialist to be treated by doctors order. At least avoid self-medications!

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