What is kidney cancer?

The illness of kidney cancer begins in the kidneys. When healthy cells in one or both kidneys grow out of control and create a lump, this is what occurs (called a tumor). Healthowealth has provided you with a comprehensive article about kidney cancer. For getting more information read the following.

Symptoms and signs

Most persons have no indications or symptoms in the early stages. Kidney cancer is most often discovered by accident during an abdominal (belly) imaging examination for another reason. You may experience the following symptoms as the tumor grows:

  • Urine with blood
  • Lower back discomfort
  • A bump in your lower back or on the side of your waist
  • Weight loss that isn’t explained, night sweats, fever, or exhaustion

​Causes of kidney cancer

The cause of kidney cells changing and becoming malignant is unknown. We know that as people become older, they are more prone to get kidney cancer. However, several risk factors have been related to kidney cancer.

Risk factors of Kidney cancer

Anything that enhances your chances of contracting an illness is considered a risk factor. Some risk factors can be adjusted (for example smoking), whereas others cannot (your gender or family history). Having one or more risk factors does not guarantee that you will get kidney cancer, but it does raise your chances.

Kidney cancer is linked to the following factors:

  • Smoking
  • Overweightness (obese)
  • Blood pressure problems
  • Men are roughly twice as likely as women to have kidney cancer.
  • Dialysis is used to treat advanced chronic kidney disease.
  • Kidney cancer patients in the family
  • Long-term usage of phenacetin, a pain-relieving medication
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Birt Hogge Dube syndrome, and other uncommon genetic illnesses are examples.
  • Long-term asbestos or cadmium exposure history

By eliminating those risk factors that can be controlled, you may be able to reduce your chance of having kidney cancer. Stopping smoking, for example, may reduce the risk, as may reducing body weight and high blood pressure.

Kidney cancer and kidney disease

Kidney cancer and kidney disease
Kidney cancer and kidney disease

There is a relationship between kidney cancer and renal illness, according to studies.

Risk of kidney cancer

According to several research, patients with renal dysfunction are more likely to develop kidney cancer because of:

  • Long-term dialysis: According to certain research, dialysis patients have a 5-fold greater risk of kidney cancer. Experts believe that renal illness, not dialysis, is to blame for this risk.
  • Immunosuppressive drugs: Some anti-rejection drugs that kidney transplant recipients must take to avoid rejection might raise their risk of kidney cancer. If you receive a transplant, however, it is critical that you take your immunosuppressant medication. Your body will reject your replacement kidney if you don’t have it.

Risk of kidney disease

  • Because the tumor is so enormous and much of the kidney has been damaged, surgery to remove the entire kidney (radical nephrectomy) is often required. If all (rather than a portion) of your kidney must be removed owing to malignancy, your risk of renal disease increases. However, if the tumor is big or centrally situated, it is typically best to remove the entire kidney. If a kidney tumor is tiny, it is preferable to have the tumor removed rather than the entire kidney (partial nephrectomy). This method lowers the risk of chronic kidney disease and its complications, such as heart and blood vessel disease.
  • Drugs that spread throughout the body to treat cancer cells wherever they may be. Drugs that spread throughout the body to treat cancer cells anywhere may be occasionally used to treat advanced kidney cancer. All cancer medicines have side effects, but some are particularly harmful to the kidneys (called nephrotoxic). The term “nephrotoxic” refers to something that can harm your kidney function.

Keep in mind that not everyone who has kidney cancer will develop renal damage. Similarly, kidney cancer does not affect everyone who has the renal disease or has had a transplant. Inquire with your doctor about ways to reduce your risk.

Prevention of Kidney cancer

Prevention of Kidney cancer
Prevention of Kidney cancer

General Precautions

  • Do not smoke.
  • Keep a healthy weight.
  • Determine whether you are exposed to particular pollutants at work or at home (such as cadmium, asbestos, and trichloroethylene, which may increase kidney cancer risk).
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Take proper care of your kidneys!

People with renal illness may be at a higher risk of developing kidney cancer

  • Inquire with your doctor about two easy tests to determine your kidney score:
  • GFR is a blood test for kidney function.
  • ACR is a urine test for kidney injury.
  • Avoid using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen for an extended period of time.
  • Control high blood pressure.
  • If you have diabetes, keep track of your blood sugar levels.

Be mindful of potential dangers!

  • Kidney cancer in the family
  • Certain disorders, such as von Hippel-Lindau disease, may have been inherited.

Types of Kidney cancer

Types of Kidney cancer
Types of Kidney cancer

Renal cell cancer

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent kind of adult kidney cancer. RCC often begins in the lining of microscopic tubes in the kidney known as renal tubules. RCC often remains in the kidney, but it can migrate to other regions of the body, most commonly the bones, lungs, or brain.

Renal cell carcinoma with clear cells

The most prevalent kind of kidney cancer is clear cell renal cell carcinoma, commonly known as cc RCC or conventional renal cell carcinoma. The tumor is called clear cell renal cell carcinoma because of how it appears under a microscope. The tumor cells seem transparent, like bubbles.

In adulthood, cc RCC accounts for over 80% of all instances of renal cell carcinoma. Adults are more likely than children to develop cc RCC. Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2% to 6% of all instances of kidney cancer in children and young adults.

Kidney cancers that are uncommon!

Rare kidney malignancies most commonly affect adolescents, teens, and young adults.

Renal cell cancer in papillary form (PRCC)

  • 15% of all kidney cell carcinomas
  • A tumor (or tumors) in the renal tubes
  • Type 1 PRCC is more frequent and increases at a slower rate.
  • Type 2 PRCC is more aggressive and develops faster.

Renal cell cancer with translocation (TRCC)

  • It is responsible for 1% to 5% of all renal cell carcinomas and 20% of childhood cases.
  • A kidney tumor (or tumors)
  • TRCC normally develops slowly and without symptoms in youngsters.
  • TRCC is aggressive and rapidly developing in adults.

Kidney tumors that are benign (non-cancerous)

Noncancerous kidney tumors develop in size but do not spread to other regions of the body and are typically not fatal. The most frequent therapy is surgical removal, and most tumors return.

Adenoma of the papillary kidney

  • The most prevalent benign kidney tumor
  • Tumors are tiny, slow-growing masses that frequently go undetected.
  • Typically, an accidental result on an imaging test is performed for another reason.


  • Tumors begin in the cells of the kidney collecting ducts and can develop in either kidney.
  • Tumors can grow to be quite big around the These tumors can grow fairly large, beginning at a little over an inch (walnut) and reaching a maximum size of 4 inches (grapefruit)


  • Benign fatty tumors can also be caused by an increase in the blood vessel and smooth muscle tissue cell proliferation.
  • Tumors are not malignant, although they can grow to be quite large and harm nearby tissue.
  • Tumors larger than an inch and a half in diameter might induce internal bleeding.

Kidney cancer Complications

Kidney cancer complications may include:

  • Failure of the kidneys
  • Local tumor spread with increased discomfort
  • Cancer has spread to the lungs, liver, and bones.

Diagnosis of Kidney cancer

Diagnosis of Kidney cancer
Diagnosis of Kidney cancer

Your doctor will diagnose kidney cancer after evaluating your medical history and performing a physical examination, as well as blood and urine tests.

Imaging examinations

  • CT scans employ x-rays to provide a comprehensive image of the kidneys and abdomen (belly). They are available with or without contrast coloring. Only trace levels of radiation are utilized. A CT scan may typically reveal if a tumor is malignant or has moved beyond the kidney.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans provide a detailed view of the kidneys and abdomen without the use of radiation. They can be performed with or without gadolinium, a contrast dye that should be avoided in persons on dialysis or with severely impaired renal function.
  • Without using radiation, ultrasound employs sound waves to provide a full view of the kidneys and abdomen. It might assist determine if a kidney mass is a fluid-filled cyst or a solid tumor. This test is performed without the use of contrast dye.
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A biopsy can be utilized in rare instances; however, it is not usually suggested. A biopsy involves removing a very little bit of the kidney using a needle and testing it for cancer cells.

Who can assist?

Discuss with your medical staff all of your treatment choices.

The following specialists may be on your medical team:

  • The urologist (a surgical doctor who treats the urinary system)
  • Cancer specialist (a doctor who specializes in cancer)
  • Oncologist who uses radiation (a doctor who treats cancer with radiation)
  • Renal specialist (kidney doctor)
  • Cancer nurse
  • Worker in social services
  • Other medical professionals

Schedule medical and health visits as soon as feasible. You may require many views on which therapy options are best for you.

Stages of Kidney cancer

If kidney cancer is discovered, your doctor will conduct tests to determine if the disease has spread within the kidney or to other regions of the body. This is known as staging. Before developing a treatment strategy, it is critical to understand the stage. The further advanced the stage, the more dangerous cancer.

Treatment of Kidney cancer

Treatment of Kidney cancer
Treatment of Kidney cancer

Surgery to remove all or part of the kidney is the most frequent therapy for kidney cancer. Your therapy, however, will be determined by the stage of your condition, your overall health, your age, and other variables.


The most frequent therapy for kidney cancer is surgery; most individuals with early-stage cancer (stages 1, 2, and 3) may be cured with surgery.

Nephrectomy (partial)

A partial nephrectomy removes the tumor or a portion of the kidney with the tumor while leaving as much of the kidney as feasible.

Nephrectomy with radical resection

The entire kidney is removed during radical nephrectomy. The surrounding tissues and lymph nodes may also be removed if necessary.

Surgical methods

Consult your doctor about the best surgical technique for you:

  • Open (traditional surgery with a long incision)
  • Laparoscopic surgery (surgery done with a video camera and thin instruments for smaller incisions)
  • The robotic (laparoscopic surgery done with the help of a robot)

Nonsurgical alternatives

Thermal coagulation

Thermal ablation is most commonly utilized for tiny tumors in persons who are not suitable candidates for nephrectomy surgery.

Active monitoring

If a tiny tumor is smaller than 4 cm in diameter, active surveillance is utilized (1.5 inches).

Chemotherapy and radiation treatment

Most kinds of chemotherapy and radiation used to treat other types of cancer are not typically effective therapies for kidney cancer.

Treatment for advanced or recurring kidney cancer

Treatment with medication may be advised with or instead of surgery for persons with advanced kidney cancer that has progressed to other regions of the body. Some of these medications are administered orally as pills, while others are administered intravenously. Many advances have been achieved in recent years, and patients with advanced kidney cancer are living far longer than they were ten years ago.

  • When advanced kidney cancer has spread to other regions of the body or surgery is not an option, medicine is frequently employed.
  • Immunotherapy employs the body’s defensive mechanism (immune system) to halt or delay cancer cell proliferation.
  • Monoclonal antibodies target a particular component of cancer cells.
  • Checkpoint inhibitors aid the immune system in identifying and attacking cancer cells.
  • Vaccines enhance the immune system in general.
  • Anti-angiogenic medicines delay or halt tumor development by reducing blood flow to the tumor.
  • Cancer growth is directly inhibited by targeted therapy.

Nutrition in Kidney cancer

Nutrition in Kidney cancer
Nutrition in Kidney cancer

It is critical to eat healthily in order to maintain excellent nutrition while undergoing cancer therapy. Getting adequate calories and nutrients to help prevent weight loss and rebuild strength is what good nutrition entails. Patients who eat healthily frequently report feeling better and having more energy.

Some people have difficulty eating healthily throughout therapy. This is due to the fact that their therapy may cause patients to lose their appetite or create side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or mouth sores, which can make eating difficult. Food tastes different to various individuals. Others may refuse to eat because they are uncomfortable or fatigued.

Alternative therapy for Kidney cancer

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) refers to medical items and activities that do not fall under the purview of mainstream medical care.

Cancer patients may utilize complementary and alternative medicine to:

  • Assist in dealing with cancer treatment side effects such as nausea, discomfort, and exhaustion.
  • They might find solace and relief from the burden of cancer treatment.
  • Feel as if they are contributing to their own care.
  • Make an effort to treat or cure their cancer.
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Therapies for the Mind and Body

These use mental attention, breathing, and physical motions to assist the body and mind relax. Here are several examples:

  • Meditation: Meditation is the practice of focusing one’s breathing or repeating words or phrases to calm one’s thoughts.
  • Biofeedback: Using basic equipment, the patient learns how to influence physiological activities that are ordinarily unnoticed (such as heart rate).
  • Hypnosis: A calm and concentrated state of concentration in which a person focuses on a certain sensation, concept, or suggestion to help in healing.
  • Yoga: A system of stretches and postures with a focus on breathing.
  • Tai Chi: Slow, soft motions with an emphasis on breath and attention.
  • Imagery: Imagining images, pictures, or experiences to aid in the healing of the body.
  • Interests in art, music, or dancing are examples of creative outlets.

Practices Based on Biology

This sort of CAM makes use of natural elements. Here are several examples:

  • Vitamins and nutritional supplements
  • Botanicals are plants or plant components, such as cannibis.
  • Turmeric and cinnamon are examples of herbs and spices.
  • Diets or special foods

Body-Based and Manipulative Practices

These are centered on dealing with one or more bodily components. Here are several examples:

  • Massage involves kneading, rubbing, tapping, and stroking the body’s soft tissues.
  • Chiropractic treatment is a sort of spinal, joint, and skeletal manipulation.
  • Reflexology is the practice of using pressure points in the hands or feet to influence other regions of the body.

Therapy Using Biofields

Biofield treatment, often known as energy medicine, is based on the idea that the body has energy fields that may be utilized for healing and well-being. By placing their hands in or through these areas, therapists apply pressure or move the body. Here are several examples:

  • Reiki: Energy balance at a distance or by laying hands on or near the patient.
  • Moving hands over the body’s energy fields is referred to as therapeutic touch.

Medical Systems as a Whole

Healing methods and beliefs have evolved over time in many civilizations and places of the world. Here are several examples:

  • Ayurvedic medicine: An Indian medical system whose purpose is to cleanse the body and restore equilibrium to the body, mind, and soul.
  • Traditional Chinese medicine is based on the notion that health is the balance of two forces in the body known as yin and yang.
  • Acupuncture is a widespread Chinese medical procedure that includes stimulating certain spots on the body to improve health or to alleviate illness symptoms and treatment side effects.
  • Homeopathy: The use of extremely tiny dosages of chemicals to stimulate the body’s ability to cure itself.
  • Naturopathic medicine employs a variety of techniques to assist the body in healing itself naturally. Herbal medicine is one example.

Coping and assistance

Living with a major disease is difficult. Cancer patients and those who care for them encounter several issues and obstacles. Coping with these issues is frequently made simpler when you have access to helpful information and the support of friends and family. Many people benefit from meeting in support groups to discuss their issues with others who have or have had cancer. Patients discuss their experiences with cancer and the impacts of therapy in support groups.

Remember that everyone is unique, and the same cancer treatments and methods may not work for everyone. Always consult with members of your healthcare team about the advice of friends and relatives.

Patient navigators are available at several cancer treatment clinics to assist you:

  • Understand the appropriate questions to ask your doctor and healthcare team.
  • Learn more about your disease and how to choose the best therapy for you.
  • Schedule appointments and gather the resources you require.

This assistance can help to alleviate the burden of dealing with your care. It is critical to discuss any concerns or questions with your doctor, healthcare team, and patient navigator in order to obtain the necessary information.

If, after reading the article “What is kidney cancer? “, you liked it and became interested in studying other fields of health and medicine, we suggest you read the following articles from the category cancer on our website.


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HealthoWealth Team

A group of students from prestigious universities are present in Healthowealth team. This group use reliable scientific sources and work under the supervision of experts and specialists to gather beneficial info in a simple way for public usage. This info is collected from authentic sources and with great precision, but keep in mind that if you have a serious illness, at first visit a specialist to be treated by doctors order. At least avoid self-medications!

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